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Through education, experiential practice, skill building and reflection, students will improve their understanding of their own learning preferences as well as how to develop and conduct effective presentations. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering "male" occupations may have varied by the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter.
Journal of Addictive Diseases —70, The effect of depression on return to drinking: A prospective study. Archives of General Psychiatry —, The relationship of self-efficacy expectancies to relapse among alcohol-dependent men and women: A prospective study , source: African Women and Apartheid: read pdf read African Women and Apartheid: Migration and Settlement in Urban South Africa International Library of African Studies. However, girls are more likely to have difficulty establishing ego-boundaries.
As a prolific poet, talented teacher and artist, and well known activist, Lorde has been acclaimed as a central figure in the feminist movement ref.
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Telma, from El Salvador, has cared for the now six-year-old Mickey since he was a baby, essentially becoming his 'mom' so his mother can keep her career on track. Eva, one of the thousands of college-educated immigrants who have fled Mexico's unstable economy, is attending night school to improve her skills, and views housekeeping as a necessary transition.
These women's stories vividly reveal how immigrants are redefining their roles, and underscores the vital role they play in many American households Loving across the Color Line: read online read online Loving across the Color Line: A White Adoptive Mother Learns About Race. Instead, the usefulness of our results arguably lie more in 1 comparing the empowerment values across populations and settings Fig. Moreover, we restricted our analysis to the individual level 1 woman in 1 household, individual level 5DE of the WEAI and did not create a household aggregate gender parity index as has been done with the WEAI because we interviewed only women and limited the analysis to simple weighted averages to keep the analysis simpler and more intuitive for use in program monitoring.
Baltenweck and Staal have discussed the value of maintaining simple rather than complex indicators in terms of their relating to real-world situations and providing information to target interventions. The distribution of score values generated by the lower adequacy levels inspired by WEAI is skewed considerably towards higher score values Fig. The resulting reduction in variation and the non-normal distribution make in-depth statistical analysis of scores more difficult. The difference in the results of the two methods implies that the arbitrary selection of adequacy levels has a large effect on estimates of the level of empowerment.
For this reason, caution is needed when interpreting absolute index values. The reasoning behind the number of adequate questions for indicator achievement is discussed above. However, a related issue is the number of questions per indicator. It can be argued that with less than three questions per indicator results may appear erratic.
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The WELI has two indicators with fewer than three questions: Credit access first question and training access second question. Further development of the WELI might include the identification of additional questions for these two indicators. Further exploration into the use of non-equal weights may strengthen the validity of the resulting index values but may result in a loss of simplicity that limits application for program monitoring. Because credit facilities were absent from the study communities, the scores related to it were zero for nearly all respondents.
Including credit facilities as an indicator, also shows the importance of balancing context specificity with theoretically grounded, cross-context dimensions that may emerge in specific settings over time. The findings show substantial differences in empowerment across the studied sites, with women in high-intensity dairy sites i. Lushoto having higher empowerment in livestock than women in pastoralist systems with less dairy intensification i.
Handeni and Mvomero , while the women in sites having low levels of livestock assets and intensification i. Kilosa showed the lowest average level of empowerment. However, because the WELI has been developed for systems in which livestock provides important livelihood contributions, this is not a question the WELI can address. Rather, the WELI investigates levels of and contributions to empowerment within livestock-dominated systems.
The findings show that the contribution of the dimensions and indicators to the overall value of individual empowerment differs considerably across the empowerment quartiles. In the lowest quartile the least empowered respondents, average score: 0. In the highest quartile most empowered respondents, average score: 0. These findings reveal how combining indicator-specific and composite analysis clarifies the differential contributions of each indicator to the overall score for empowerment at specific quartiles. Process of empowerment Because WELI data for the current study was collected in a cross-sectional survey, it does not capture the processes of empowerment.
Empowerment often is conceptualized as individual processes of change Eyben and Napier-Moore ; Kabeer A decrease over time, for example, in the score for a component indicator of empowerment—such as access to training or information—might suggest increased self-awareness of limitations faced, a necessary step towards identifying solutions for self-determination. A single quantitative assessment of empowerment in a given context may preclude an accounting of the nature of changes in empowerment over time Cheong et al.
Repeated applications of the WELI within cohorts over time, with in-depth qualitative research would provide richer data to reveal and to interpret complex empowerment processes. Gender relations and dynamics The process of empowerment starts with individual-level ontological transformations in self-determination and self-recognition Bartlett For these individual changes to be realized, others must recognize them through changes in power relations and in the distribution of resources and opportunities Santarius and Sachs By applying the WELI only to women, the current study did not capture the nature of changing social and gender dynamics and the causes behind them.
The authors, therefore, recommend applying the WELI with men and women involved in the livestock sector, and complementing this quantitative data collection with qualitative research to enhance an understanding of the unfolding of individual-level empowerment, changing gender dynamics, and the relational nature of empowerment. Relevant dimensions and indicators The WELI, as developed here, includes standard dimensions and indicators of empowerment developed in consultation with experts from the focal area.
Because understandings and dimensions of empowerment may be time, and context, specific Kabeer ; Richardson ; Tsikata and Darkwah , this tool may need some adaptation to be appropriate for other populations and settings to capture better local goals for self-determination. The WELI was developed by involving local expertise and based on a formative study.
After its application, and to add depth to the findings, we conducted a qualitative and participatory study of what empowerment meant for the respondents and what dimensions were most relevant to them to measure changes in empowerment Price et al.
Such a study can be used to adjust the dimensions included in the WELI to new contexts and indicators, particularly if conducted at the initial stages of adapting the WELI to local contexts. Dimensions that coincide with universal ones can then be used for comparison across-settings while dimensions that are only locally relevant can be used for in-depth monitoring and assessment within the local population.
Such an approach also may help expand the dimensions currently explored by the WELI to new ones such as collective empowerment Yount While this scoring approach has the benefit of simplicity, a next recommended step to validate the WELI is to perform a psychometric analysis of its component items questions and dimensions or indicators. Since the WELI is new, one approach would be to explore the set of theoretically grounded dimensions first by performing an exploratory factor analysis.
Taking into account the theory about the number of anticipated dimensions, expected item loadings, and model fit, a next step then would be to confirm the factor structure by estimating a confirmatory factor analysis, or CFA, in an independent sample. Finally, we would want to confirm that the measurement of the WELI was invariant across theoretically relevant subgroups, such as different educational, socioeconomic, or ethnic groups. We also recommend that a concise subset of items be identified that facilitate program monitoring Yount This paper presents the WELI, a tool developed to assess quantitatively the empowerment of women in the livestock sector.
Use of the tool is appropriate in households where livestock is the main agricultural activity because its use increases accuracy and depth of findings. The authors argue that integrating qualitative and participatory assessments of local perceptions of empowerment with indicators used in the WELI is a good way forward in providing data that can be compared across sites and that sheds light on empowerment as an individual and collective process. The approach also can be useful for integrating in the WELI other dimensions of empowerment that are locally relevant, therefore, expanding the scope of conceptualizations of empowerment currently included.
Finally, we also recommend applying the WELI and the recommended qualitative methods with women and men from the same community to account for the relational nature of empowerment. The authors thank Amber Peterman, Peter Willadsen, and Sophie Theis for their constructive comments on an earlier version of this paper.
The usual disclaimers apply. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Authors Authors and affiliations A. Teufel L. Korir I. Baltenweck A. Webb Girard P. Dominguez-Salas K. Open Access. First Online: 31 May Three major sources informed the development of the WELI.
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Third, evidence from an ongoing project MoreMilkiT, see below , a formative study undertaken by Emory University in , and consultations with ILRI livestock experts were used to identify dimensions considered key in the empowerment of women dairy farmers pertaining to livestock farming, dairy value chain development and nutrition based on animal source foods in Tanzania. The definitions of these questions and how they were associated with each indicator were developed through intense field testing and exchanges with key informants during the formative research in the target area.
Similar to the WEAI, a high degree of consistency amongst indicators and questions was maintained to ease data collection and analysis. While the tool focuses on livestock, other activities, such as crop farming or marketing, were included during the creation of indicators because they are considered essential for a complete picture of livestock rearing in small-scale farming households.
Dimension Indicator Topics covered by questions contributing to indicator components Indicator adequacy threshold minimum number of questions achieved 1. Decisions about agricultural production a. Input into productive decisions Decisions on choice of livestock species or crops, breeding strategies, inputs, labor etc. Autonomy in production Responsibility for animal health and food safety management 2 out of 5 questions 2.