Court music nha nhac was played by two orchestras. One, located in the Upper Hall of the court, consisted of a chime of 12 stones, a series of 12 bells, a zither of 25 strings Chinese se , a zither with 7 strings Chinese qin , flutes, panpipes, a scraper in the shape of a tiger, a double-headed drum, a mouth organ, and a globular whistle. The second orchestra in the Lower Hall used 16 iron chimes, a harp with 20 strings, a lute with 4 strings Chinese pipa , a double flute, a double-headed drum, and a mouth organ.
Ceremonial music, almost nonexistent in the 20th century, was patterned after court music. In Buddhist ceremonies, prayers were recited in three ways: as recitation in a low voice, as a cantillation sung, inflected recitation following the six tones of the Vietnamese language , and as chant accompanied by an orchestra of two drums, bell, gong, cymbals, and fiddles.
Music as entertainment is mostly a vocal art played without ritual outside the court and still enjoyed by many people.
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The hat a dao found in the north is the oldest form. Although the playing of court music was restricted, popular music was encouraged, leading to northern and southern styles that were patronized by both the aristocracy and commoners. Western musical influence in this period was manifest in the use of the mandolin , the Spanish guitar , and the violin , as well as by the introduction of European classical music and composition following Western forms.
In the later 20th century traditional Vietnamese music began to disappear, but attempts to revive it began in the early s. Vietnamese rural folk music is built on the same musical principles as court music. The main difference lies in its application to village activities—work, games, courting, marriage, cure for the sick, entertainment, feasts. Common elements characterize and unify all Vietnamese music.
It is based on an oral tradition, with written notation serving only as a reading guide. Melodies are generally built out of a pentatonic system for example, C, D, F, G, A to which two auxiliary tones E, B may be added to make other pentatonic melodies. A song, usually preceded by a prelude, may be sung in slow, moderate, or fast tempo divisible by two or four, with a simple contrapuntal countermelody accompaniment using unisons and octaves at beginning points of phrases.
Outside of the first beats, intervals of fifths, fourths, thirds, and even seconds are allowed.
An important aspect of melodies is the idea of mode dieu , the elements of which do not essentially differ from those of Javanese and Burmese music. A Javanese philosophical concept based on mysticism, the state of being refined alus , Indonesian halus , and the inner life as related to Hindu, Islamic, and Indonesian thought may best be represented in music by the Javanese gamelan , an orchestra made up mostly of bronze instruments producing homogeneous blended sounds.
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The instruments in the ensemble may be divided into three groups of musical function. The first group comprises thick bronze slabs saron demung , saron barung , saron panerus on trough resonators playing the theme usually in regular note values without ornamentation. The second group consists of elaborating or panerusan instruments, which add ornaments to the main theme. In this group gongs in double rows bonang panembang , bonang barung , bonang panerus play variations with the same ratio of speed as the saron group.
In softer sounding music for indoor performance, other panerusan instruments with very mellow sounds come in. These are three sizes of thin bronze slabs with bamboo resonators— gender panembung or slentem , gender barung , and gender panerus. Other elaborating instruments are the wooden xylophone gambang , the zither celempung with 26 strings tuned in pairs, an end-blown flute suling , and a 2-stringed lute called a rebab by the Javanese , which leads the orchestra.
In loud-sounding music, the soft-sounding instruments are not played, and the drum kendang leads the orchestra. Two tuning systems prevail. The slendro tends to have five equidistant but flexible or varying pitches in an octave, while the pelog , with seven equally flexible tones, has a more varied structure.
Arrows up are tones slightly higher than Western tempered tuning [in which a semitone is equivalent to cents] and vice versa for arrows down. Melodies from these tunings are governed by a modal structure patet the elements of which are similar to those of Vietnamese and Burmese music.
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In West Java the most popular ensembles use a vocal part, a two-stringed fiddle rebab or a bamboo flute suling , and a box zither kacapi. In the gamelan, submodes surupan are formed by the use of vocal tones—sung or played on the suling or rebab —which amplify the number of scales in both the pelog and slendro systems. In contrast to the introspection of Javanese music, the Balinese gamelan exudes a music of brilliant sounds with syncopations displaced accents and sudden changes, as well as gradual increase and decrease in volume and speed and feats of fast, precise playing.
The tuning system, musical instruments, and polyphonic stratification are similar to those of the Javanese gamelan, although in Bali the seven-tone pelog is not popular.
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Most gamelan are tuned to a five- or four-tone system, and the concept of modes is not as clearly developed as in Java. A variety of gamelan exists, each with a special function , instrumentation, repertoire, and tuning system. The gamelan gong orchestra is among the most extensive in its number of instruments. A modern version, gong kebyar , omits the trompong gongs in a row and saron bronze slabs over a trough resonator and replaces them with gangsa gantung metallophone with bamboo resonators and reyong of four gongs to produce exuberant outbursts of sound. The gamelan gambuh , now rare, comprises four end-blown flutes, one rebab , and a group of percussion.
The gamelan semar pegulingan , played formerly in royal courts but now almost disappeared, emphasizes the trompong as a solo instrument. The gamelan pelegongan is a virtuoso orchestra that accompanies legong dances, while the gamelan pejogedan is an orchestra of xylophones for dance joged and entertainment in the marketplace. The gender wayang is a quartet of slendro tuned metallophones specially employed for shadow plays. The gamelan angklung , a village orchestra assembled during ceremonies, anniversaries, and cremations, originally consisted of rattling tubes that are now replaced by metallophones.
The gamelan arja is characterized by a soft timbre tone colour and the use of a one-stringed bamboo zither, the guntang , to accompany musical comedy and popular plays. Big mention to Lee, I have never come across such a helpful staff member such as him. He went out of his way to help us, and share his knowledge with us.
Breakfast was very standard but nice. Wifi reliable. Place safe and cosy. Books for guests to read and lovely areas to sit and relax. Rooms rather small, shower and toilet are one everything becomes wet , shower not strong enough, breakfast basic. Nice communal area, clean rooms, friendly staff, good location, free bicycles, breakfast was included even though not mentioned on Booking. I think the price should be lower. Because the room is very small so as the bathroom. Taking a shower was uncomfortable cause the water flow was very weak and after the shower, everything is wet.
Staff were so kind and they explained everything about the place. Especially the guy at the front desk took a great deal of time to help us about where to go and what to eat. The taxi service at the hotel was reasonably priced. I liked the atmosphere there it was comfy and friendly. And th hotel is conveniently located too.
The breakfast included was limited but fresh bagels and bananas, instant tea and coffee. The air conditioning was a bit feeble but got there eventually. The bathroom was small. Very good value for money. The staff were extremely friendly and spoke good English. I also liked the extra effort they went to with providing maps and recommendations in the area.
Very clean. There is nothing I do not like about the place. The staff are friendly and very helpful. The atmosphere is comfy and easy going.
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It is good for couples and yound travellers. The price is fit for its location and hotel's condition.. The Staff was very friendly and provided us with guidance and support for our stay. The offer free water, tea and coffee as well as banana. Snacks from the bakery are free in the morning.
Front doors closed at hours, a little inconvenient if you were to stay out a little late.